Who Owned The Most Slaves? The Answer Will Surprise You.

Pixabay — Image of Thomas Jefferson

I’ve been through Aiken, SC and never given it a thought. Aiken is in western South Carolina where you’ll find the University of South Carolins-Aiken, and the Thoroughbred Racing Hall of Fame and Museum. Founded in 1835, Aiken was named after William Aiken; President of the South Carolina Railroad. Across the state, Aiken also owned the Jehossee Plantation along with the whole island it was located on. At one time Aiken owned over 700 slaves which would have made him the 5th largest slaveholder. Slightly ahead of Louisiana Governor John L. Manning (Great-grandfather of Peyton and Eli Manning) with 670 slaves and a ways ahead of President Thomas Jefferson with 600.

Fourth place belonged to Meridith Calhoun in Louisiana. Third to sugar producer John Burneside, also of Louisiana. In second place was cotton producer Dr. Stephen Duncan who owned over 15 plantations in Mississippi and Louisiana. First place ostensibly belonged to the “King of the rice planters,” Col. Joshua John Ward who controlled six large rice plantations in South Carolina. Ward had over 1,100 slaves but they were all outdone by an entity one never thinks of as slaveholders… the railroads.

The railroads owned and/or rented more slaves than any of the largest plantations. You’d never know it to read their histories. It’s fairly well known about the use of up to 20,000 Chinese workers who made up 90% of the workforce that built the Western railroads. At one time they were paid $26 a month working six days a week. That compared favorably to the black slaves that built the Southern railroads, many of the trains used to transport slaves to southern plantations that were bred on the breeding farms in Richmond, VA, Maryland Eastern-Shore, and elsewhere.

View at Medium.com

Rarely mentioned in history books or taught in schools is the fact that slaveowners were the majority shareholders in most of the Southern railroads. William Aiken’s South Carolina Railroad never bragged about it. If you look deeply into their records of financial losses after the Civil War. You’ll find defaulted Confederate Bonds, uncollected transport charges, and 111 emancipated slaves for which they weren’t reimbursed.

“Southerners built some of the earliest and longest railroads in the nation.” – William G. Thomas III

Professor William G. Thomas III documented the role slaves played in building the Southern railroads. He cited historian Theodore Kornweibel indicated over 10,000 slaves worked on the railroads between 1857–1865. Dr. Mae Gilland Wright estimated the railroads used 15,000 slaves in 1860 alone. Many of them were rented from local plantations, some doing double duty harvesting cotton, tobacco, and rice on their day jobs. The work was often dangerous, sometimes involving dynamite to dig tunnels. Slaveowners who leased their slaves often took out insurance as they realized they might not get their slave back healthy or alive.

View at Medium.com

The legend of John Henry told of an ex-slave who was pitted in a steel-driving race against a steam-powered machine. John Henry won the race but died afterward after his heart gave out from stress. There are varying accounts as to whether this was a true story and one possible location of the contest was Talcott, West Virginia. In that version, which took place after slavery. Henry was a convict who was leased out to the railroads to do their bidding. Only the name changed once slavery ended. The new owners who rented out slaves were the state and federal prisons. The more modern chain gangs and current road crews or in some cases prisoners serving as firefighters are little more than slaves. It might well be that some states today might be renting out more slaves than were owned by Thomas Jefferson, William Aiken, or Col. Joshua John Ward. Think about it!

Republican Excuses If Trump Loans Were Co-Signed By Russian Oligarchs

On Tuesday, August 28th, Lawrence O’Donnell opened his show during the handoff from Rachel Maddow by saying a single source had claimed Donald Trump had gotten loans from Deutsche Bank; cosigned by Russian oligarchs. O’ Donnell later admitted he erred by discussing a thinly sourced story which did not meet “the rigorous vetting standards” of MSNBC and NBC News. Typically, a news organization would require at least two sources before going public and Lawrence O’Donnell stated several times he only had one.

“Last night I made an error in judgment by reporting an item about the president’s finances that didn’t go through our rigorous verification and standards process. I shouldn’t have reported it and I was wrong to discuss it on the air. I will address the issue on my show tonight.”

The thought of Russians actually co-signing Trump’s loans had never been discussed publicly although many have questioned why Deutsche Bank would lend hundreds of millions of dollars to Trump when literally no-one else in the world would? Reporters worldwide are now on the scent and Trump loan documents are already under subpoena. We will likely find out the truth fairly soon. My question is, how will Republican supporters respond if this turns out to be true? Let’s imagine?

Mitch McConnell

“These loans were taken out long before Mr. Trump ran for President. I myself have gifts of tens of millions from my Chinese father-in-law. Co-signing a loan is a normal business arrangement and I see nothing wrong with it. As an aside, my name is not Moscow Mitch.”

Lindsay Graham

“I think any honest business relationship the President had with close friends of Vladimir Putin can only help bring our two countries closer together. The President kept quiet about it because the fake news media would only twist it and try to make it out to be something other than a standard business deal with a dictator.”

Sean Hannity

“This is just like when people tried to make something out of Michael Cohen secretly representing me while I had him on my show several times. Nothing to see here.”

Mike Pence

“I can assure you this never happened. You have my word!”

David Duke

“We stand with the President. No matter what they say about him, he’s our guy.”

Vladimir Putin

“Nyet! Fake news!”

Ann Coulter

“I don’t care what he does as long as he builds that wall.”

Michael Cohen

“I have nothing to say. I don’t want to end up like Jeffrey Epstein.”

Will There Be Reparations For Ocoee, Florida?

Image: Pixabay

In 1920, Ocoee, FL was a sleepy town, more like a village with a population of just over a thousand people, half of whom were black. Ocoee is just outside of Orlando, FL; placed in the same county. This was long before Disney World when orange groves were the central feature of the area.

1920 was a Presidential election year. Warren G. Harding the Republican was running against Democrat James M. Cox. It was the first election since the end of World War One and the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment; giving women the right to vote.


Black Americans had the right to vote since the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments in 1868 and 1870. During Reconstruction that led to the election of black representatives to Congress and state legislatures throughout the South and even statewide office in Mississippi. In 1877, the Party of Lincoln (Republicans) turned their back on the South in trade for winning a contested 1876 Presidential Election. Republicans got a President, Democrats got removal of Federal troops from the South, effectively ending Reconstruction. As icing on the cake, President Rutherford B. Hayes implemented Posse Comitatus, ensuring Federal Troops would never return to the South to protect one set of Americans from another.


Although blacks had been entitled to vote for half a century according to the Constitution. Jim Crow and the KKK had other ideas. Attempts to vote often led to lynchings and threats of harm. The people who should have offered protection, local law enforcement, were often part of the problem. Using their guns and badges to block the polling places. In 1920 there was an organized effort statewide in Florida to prevent blacks from voting. There were incidents in Jacksonville and Miami. None worse than what occurred in Ocoee, FL. Site of the “single bloodiest day in modern U.S. political history.”

There was a semi-organized effort to get blacks to vote in Florida. Two Ocoee men, July Perry, and Mose Norman, with guidance from a white Orlando judge; attempted to vote that day. It was alleged one of the men had a shotgun. When white vigilantes, led by a former Orlando police chief came to the home of July Perry. Two white men were killed by those inside trying to protect themselves. The call went out to the surrounding communities of Orlando, Apopka, and Winter Garden. They took July Perry to an Orlando jail, then the next day a mob took him from the jail and lynched him. The white mob shot and killed black people indiscriminately. They burned two black churches, a lodge meeting hall and 25 homes of black people. The Orlando newspaper reported on the “Ocoee Race Riot, Two Whites Killed.” The number of black people killed is unknown, estimates range from 35–100. All the black residents that weren’t initially killed were driven away. Ocoee remained an all-white town for 41 years.

“At the time that I visited Ocoee, the last colored family of Ocoee was leaving with their goods piled high on a motor truck with six colored children on top. White children stood around and jeered the Negroes who were leaving, threatening them with burning if they did not hurry up and get away. These children thought it a huge joke that some Negroes had been burned alive.”

Walter White — NAACP

In 1994, consideration was given to reparations for Ocoee victims. Citizens of Rosewood had been given a $2 million settlement after their town was burned out by whites in 1923, after Ocoee. In fighting the efforts to compensate Ocoee victims, lawyers claimed the state had no responsibility for Ocoee. They had “no way of knowing in advance” and were not liable. Because some of the landowners had received compensation, (some less than $1 per acre). They had already been reimbursed. The effort to compensate victims then failed miserably.

State Senator Randolph Bracy (D-Ocoee) is planning to introduce legislation for reparations to descendants of the Ocoee Massacre. He is proposing a $10 million settlement to direct descendants that step forward. He thinks the State which recently apologized for the Groveland Four who were innocently jailed or murdered (in one case both) in another Central Florida town for allegedly raping a white woman in 1949. This later proved to be false. Bracy believes that the state which voted for Trump in 2016 might have a change of heart. What do you think?

With Apologies to Neil Diamond, “Trump’s Brother Love Travelling Salvation Show.”

To those on the outside, a Trump Rally stars a barely literate conman, repeating his hit lines from 2016. He spreads his unique brand of hatred, targeting mostly minorities and women, saving a few barbs for others who didn’t let him have his way. It somewhat reminds of a circus, although the Headmaster often seems like a clown with the oversized red tie and the hair. There’s no explanation for the hair except it seems to have a life of its own. Changing direction and color without notice.

For the insiders, the loyalists, the Trump base; it’s like church. Except instead of exhortations to chase Satan away. He’s leading the service. Trump rallies are a traveling roadshow. Seeking out destinations where a big enough segment of his loyalists can be found to listen to him brag about false accomplishments, attack the media, and cue the chants whether it be; “Lock Her Up,” or “Send Her Home,” or “Mexico!” in response to the question about who’s going to pay for the wall.

The Trump Rally is the biggest event of the year for those who aren’t on the traveling team. If they didn’t already have their MAGA hat and Trump shirt. A vendor will gladly sell them one. The official merchandise is made in the USA, although bootleg items may be tagged, “Made in China.” The crowd is a sea of almost all white, although you can usually spot the “Michael the black guy,” spotted in the first few rows behind Trump and holding a sign. He’s made a hustle out of supporting Trump as have Diamond & Silk and a few others.

If you’ve never seen the movie, “A Face in the Crowd,” starring Andy Griffith, you should. You’ll be impressed by Andy in a serious role starring as Lonesome Rhodes, a conman who had much of the nation adoring him until his true personality came out. You never saw this Andy Griffith in Mayberry. He was a charming womanizer with an evil streak a mile wide. Commentator Keith Olbermann used to regularly call Trump, “Lonesome Rhodes” long before the election. How right he was.

Singer Neil Diamond released, “Brother Love’s Travelling Salvation Show” in 1969. It was recently featured in the Quentin Tarantino film, “Once Upon a Time in Hollywood” which gave it a revival although it never really went away. Southern evangelicals originally hated the song, thinking it mocked their revivals and traveling ministers who went from town to town. Diamond explained it was a celebration of Gospel music and the controversy ultimately subsided.

The song can’t help but remind you of a Trump rally.

“Cause Everyone Knows Brother Love’s Show”

Everyone knows a Trump rally. They’re almost all the same. Rock music starts it out, much of it played against the wishes of the artists that originally performed it.

“ Room gets suddenly still
And when you’d almost bet
You could hear yourself sweat, he walks in”

When the man himself finally arrives on stage, the crowd cheers and he revels in it. He’s been known to break out clapping for himself.

The Trump Rally is a family affair. Grandma and grandpa, the kids, bring them all.

“ Pack up the babies
And grab the old ladies
And everyone goes
’Cause everyone knows
Brother Love’s show”

The rallies are a chance to see who makes up the Trump base. You could make the case that they are the extremists and every Trump voter can’t be associated with those wearing Confederate flag shirts and spewing hate which some in the crowd do. That they’re almost all white probably is a fair representation. When they were screaming, “Send Her Back” and Trump was basking in glory for 13 seconds before moving on. (He later praised the Greenville, NC crowd as “patriots.”) It took a couple of days to get back on message after the nation pointed out how racist they were. Racists hate being called racist, being racist they don’t mind so much.

The Trump rally is a portrait of a certain part of America. When Trump opened his 2020 Campaign in my city Orlando, FL. I didn’t attend but did scour the pictures to see who I know that did. For them, it was the Trump Brother Love’s Traveling Salvation Show. For me, it represented something else entirely.

“Love, Brother Love say
Brother Love’s Travelling Salvation Show
Pack up the babies
And grab the old ladies
And everyone goes”

30 Million Pieces of Silver

If you didn’t immediately get the Judas reference in the title. Don’t come for me, read your bible. The National Rifle Association contributed over $54 million in 2016 to Republican candidates for the House, Senate, and Presidency. $30.3 million went to Donald Trump. After the Marjorie Stoneman Douglas High School shooting when seventeen students and staff members were killed on February 14, 2018. President Trump attended a “listening session” with teachers and students and made the following declaration.

“We’re going to be very strong on background checks. We’re going to be doing very strong background checks.”

A week later in front of a group of lawmakers… he told them…

“You’re scared of the NRA.”

In a televised meeting, he called for a “powerful” bill on background checks to address mental illness. Almost a year later to the day, just before the House of Representatives passed a bill requiring universal background checks, Trump said he would veto the bill should it reach his desk. Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell refused to bring the House bill to the Senate floor for a vote. Trump, the 30 million dollar man, and McConnell who wasn’t running in 2016 but as of 2017 had received lifetime NRA contributions of over $1.2 million, had gotten the message. Their bill had come due.

While it’s unclear how much influence Russian oligarchs and Saudi investors have on Trump’s decisions, we can track what $30 million got the NRA. No matter what his initial scattered thoughts on a gun-related issue might be. The NRA has been able to smack him and force him to toe their line, the same one adopted by the Republican Party. I would be remiss not to point out the Democrats that have bowed down to the NRA as well.

Mitch McConnell has disproven the theory that you can only serve one master. He has earned the names, “Moscow Mitch” for aiding and abetting Russia, has received millions from his wife’s Chinese family whose shipping enterprise she regulates as Secretary of Transportation, and who single-handedly has protected the NRA from enduring pesky votes on legislation which might hamper them. In recent days he’s been simultaneously trending as #MoscowMitch, #MassacreMitch, and now #MoscowMassacreMitch.

McConnell & Trump have made sure no progress can be made. Even though over 90% of Americans favor universal background checks. The two of them have made getting them passed into law, impossible. Unfortunately, they haven’t acted alone.

Members of Congress, state legislators, Governors, lobbyists, corporations that support the NRA and those that blindly follow their lead, and those who watch… saying and doing nothing. For those who do nothing because they don’t know what to do. There are opportunities but they require you to open your eyes, minds, and hearts. For those that are following your financial interests; a campaign contribution, maintaining an elected office, keeping customers while turning a blind eye to the cost in human lives. May you rot in hell!

At the time of this writing, thirty-one people are dead from the mass shootings in El Paso, TX, and Dayton, OH. Twenty-two of those killed by a white nationalist follower of Donald Trump. The New York Times just reported the Trump campaign spent millions on Facebook promoting a “Mexican invasion,” the same words used bu the shooter. Trump is planning a trip to El Paso. For the first time in modern history, when a President comes to a community in mourning, there will be protests.

Thirty-one people dead averages out to just under $1 million per person. The payment isn’t for the number killed. It’s for the work he’s about to do. He slipped and started talking about background checks between rounds of golf in the hours after the El Paso shooting. The NRA must have tugged his coattails before his televised speech as that language was removed.

#MassacreMitch is ignoring calls to recall the Senate from vacation to vote on the bipartisan bills he’s refused to bring to the floor for a vote. Part of his job as he sees it is to prevent his members from having to take tough votes that either the public or the NRA might hold against them. The one master he never served, was the people of the United States. They don’t line his coffers.

The NRA is in disarray, weaker than at any point in recent history. They’ve had an upheaval in leadership, membership is dropping, they sued their ad agency who then filed a counter-claim against the NRA for $50million. Their leaders have been accused of wasteful spending. Yet they will do what they always do; threaten their members to stand fast and block any legislation to require background checks, ban assault weapons, or save lives. There is little reason to suspect legislators will do the right thing this time, but there’s always hope.

We the people are not without recourse as the upcoming battle rages. Legislators will show us who they are and who they work for, and we should believe them. If they have sold out our children for $30 million or $3,000, the next step is to vote them out. That’s what representative government requires, making them serve us instead of corporate interests. Donald and Mitch are both up for re-election in 2020, I can’t think of a finer place to start.

The Russians Are Coming For Kamala Harris. Why?

If nothing else was learned during the two House committee hearings featuring former Special Counsel Robert Mueller, (besides obstruction of justice, campaign finance violations, and perjury) it’s that not enough has been done to prevent Russia from attacking our elections. A separate bipartisan report from the Senate Intelligence Committee showed that Russia hacked into the election apparatus of all fifty states. Except in the mind of Donald Trump who asked a reporter recently, “You don’t really believe this, do you?” It’s well understood that the Russians interfered in the 2016 election with the intention of helping Donald Trump and little has been done to prevent it from happening again.

“You don’t really believe this, do you? — Donald Trump

After the first Democrat debate when Kamala Harris put Joe Biden on his heels on an issue he felt was a strong point and threatened Biden’s strong support from black voters. The Democrat establishment circled the wagons and started making comments either in support of Biden or chiding Harris. Prior to the debate, Jim Clyburn told America for no apparent reason that the two black candidates, Kamala Harris, and Cory Booker weren’t getting traction and Harris had done little to explain her policies.

After the debate, former Senator Barbara Boxer who had endorsed Kamala Harris when she ran to take over the Senate seat Boxer retired from; reminded America that Harris had previously supported Biden without mention of the issues she critiqued in the debate. I wrote an article then saying, “The Long Knives Are Out For Kamala Harris,” I didn’t know the extent that Russia would come out against her as well. The question is why?

View at Medium.com

After the second debate during which Kamala Harris was criticized onstage by Rep. Tulsi Gabbard on her history as the Attorney General of California. Russian bots went all-in on the Internet in declaring Harris’s candidacy all but over. Like clockwork, Fox News reiterated everything said on the Internet. Make no mistake, Kamala Harris’s record on any issue is fair game to be discussed and debated which is true of any of the candidates. A campaign to misrepresent that record by Russians supporting Trump is another thing entirely.

Not long after the second debate, the hashtags #KamalaHarris Destroyed, #KamalaDestroyed, and others, began appearing with hundreds of retweets showing “bot-like-activity” according to the Wall Street Journal. Previous activity on Twitter tried to suggest that Kamala Harris wasn’t eligible to run for President because her parents were immigrants. That tweet was pushed by Russian accounts and Donald Trump, Jr which may well be one and the same.

View at Medium.com

Russian activity in 2016 was designed to support the candidacy of Donald J. Trump. Given that they pretty much have gotten what they paid for in terms of the current administration leaving the door open for future attacks and looking the other way in Ukraine, Syria, Venezuela, and elsewhere. There’s no reason to suspect they won’t be backing Trump again. Are they coming after Harris because they perceive her as a formidable candidate against Trump should she make it to the general election? There’s no doubt that once the Democrats have a nominee, the Russians will single out that person for their interference. But for now, their strategy appears to be to try picking off those that present viable threats to Trump, starting with Harris.

The Russians are doing what they can to bring down Kamala Harris, using the playbook they used to attack Hillary Clinton. Like in 2016, many Americans are unwittingly supporting those efforts by retweeting and helping spread their narrative. Real black people are buying into what the Russians are saying and helping bring down one of two black candidates. I’m not saying don’t challenge Harris’s record. I am saying research it for yourself and reach your own decisions.

Most of the attacks on Harris focus on her record as Attorney General of California. There are claims she participated in the mass incarceration of people of color. She’s alleged to have locked up 1,500 people for marijuana use while laughing for having done the same thing. These and other charges were looked at more closely by Politi-fact which provided additional information. Don’t take their word either, do your own research before taking Russia’s or anyone else’s word for it.

View at Medium.com

There are some other attacks on Harris that concern me but it is the right of others to make them. One notable writer criticized the grammar in one of her tweets. There are online discussions about her white husband and what that means, or her long-ago romance with Willie Brown who was a much older man and separated from his wife at the time. Are we applying a double standard for a black woman? Congress is full of former prosecutors who have rarely been condemned for putting people in jail. Twenty-six former Presidents were lawyers, some have a record of prosecuting cases. Jeb Bush’s failure to become President wasn’t related to his Mexican-American wife.

The attacks on Harris today will become the attacks on Joe Biden, or Bernie, or Elizabeth Warren, Mayor Pete, or even Tulsi Gabbard should success come her way. Be wary of the Internet claims about any candidate. the next one under attack may well be your own.

That Time White Slaveowners Got Reparations While Slaves Didn’t Get 40 Acres and a Mule

“It is time for us to simply realize that … when it comes to the economic gap between blacks and whites in America, it does come from a great injustice that has never been dealt with. If you did the math today, it would be trillions of dollars, and I believe that anything less than $100 billion is an insult.”

Marianne Williamson

Reparations are in the news thanks to a few minutes in the limelight at the recent Democrat debate. Marianne Williamson whose name is usually followed by, “bless her heart,” made the profound statement above. She summed up in a paragraph what Ta-Nehisi Coats wrote in an 8,000-word essay in the Atlantic. He said it better with documentation but she was on prime time television.


America has given reparations before, to Japanese Americans who were taken from their homes during World War II and placed in Internment camps. To Native Americans for lands seized by the Federal government. To victims in North Carolina of forced sterilizations under a decades-long Eugenics program that would have made Hitler proud. The State of Florida paid descendants of the town of Rosewood to acknowledge the states failure to act when blacks were killed and/or burned out of their town. They failed to address reparations for blacks killed and/or burned out in the city of Ocoee. Once was apparently enough.


The general response from white people has been to suggest that black people are owed nothing as a result of generations being held in slavery, enduring beatings, rape, and building this country for free while their owners reaped the benefit. Some sympathize but suggest there’s no way to distribute the money fairly and the wrong people would benefit. Almost none know that white slaveholders received reparations from the government while at the same time, denied former slaves their promised 40 acres and a mule.

Andrew Johnson was never supposed to be President. He wasn’t even Abraham Lincoln’s first Vice-President. Lincoln, famously a Republican, crossed Party lines and chose Democrat Johnson a segregationist. His selection was an olive branch to the South with hopes it would quicken reconciliation after the Civil War. Johnson was the only sitting senator from a Southern state that didn’t resign after his state’s secession. He got off to an auspicious start as Vice-President, giving a rambling inauguration address while allegedly drunk. He was Vice-President for less than six weeks before Lincoln was assassinated and he became President of the United States. A Southerner from Tennessee found himself in charge of unifying the nation. The fox was in charge of the hen house.

On January 16, 1865, General William Tecumseh Sherman issued Special Field Order №15 which provided for confiscation of 400,000 acres of land on the Atlantic Coast of Florida, Georgia and South Carolina. Other orders and Acts were intended to distribute lands throughout the South to freed slaves. Congress also directed that confiscated lands be given to former slaves, in some cases loaned mules to work the farms.

President Johnson, however, was partial to any former Confederate who swore a loyalty oath. At one point, there were conflicting orders that confiscated lands be distributed to former slaves and loyal Southerners. After complaints from his Southern friends, Johnson soon cleared that up and gave practically all that land to its former owners, taking the land back that slaves had made improvements on, granting it without compensation to the men that formerly owned them

Reparations to white people haven’t been a single act, it’s a process. Even sincere attempts to provide land to freed slaves were countered by state laws (the Black Codes) that prevented black people from owning land. The Freedmen’s Bureau regarded those laws as Unconstitutional and acted as if they didn’t exist. Federal troops remaining in the South helped keep the peace although their existence contributed to a festering resentment. Other programs throughout the South attempted to make land available to freed slaves yet

President Johnson and those who followed were intent on restoring lands to white people. The Freedmen’s Bureau changed its focus to education opportunities and wage controls. The first dozen years after the Civil War ended up being reparations to white people that lost the war and now declared loyalty to the union. In 1877, reparations went into overdrive.

The Compromise of 1877 meant the Federal government abandoned the South and removed the Federal Troops. In 1888, Posse Comitatus ensured that Federal Troops would never return. Reconstruction was over and Jim Crow was ushered in. Slavery begat the Black Codes which begat Jim Crow, all a form or legalizing the racial inequality benefiting white people, in other words, reparations for white people.


Would that this be the only example in history? The GI Bill is credited with being the vehicle that did more to create wealth in the middle-class and educational opportunities for veterans and their families. While theoretically available to all that qualified, the all-white administers in the government ignored the inability to blacks to get loans from banks or acceptance in segregated colleges. Another case of reparations to white people for their service while black people were denied.

America’s history is replete with reparations to white people, now centering mostly on the rich as in the 2017 Tax Cut ushered in under Donald Trump. The inference that black people don’t deserve reparations requires one to ignore that white America has always depended on them. While the issue of reparations is complicated, we can start by being honest and acknowledge it has not only always existed, but white people have benefited most.

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